Qian Xuesen 钱学森 - Father of China's Rocket and Space Program
- 手上沒有劍和手上有劍而不使用它 不是一回事. To use my knowledge to change Chinese people destiny - I want Chinese people to possess her own nuclear bomb and missles despite the controversy - I personally think - We are preparing against aggression - not owning a sword and has a sword and not using it is an entirely different matter."
Qian Xuesen 钱学森 The Movie 钱学森 Hsue-shen Tsien 高清国语中英双字 http://youtu.be/K0Uzy091j6E
钱学森 第一集 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4m2slnegug
钱学森 第二集 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-95x387UkM
钱学森 第三集 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWcqf-RJpTM
钱学森 第四集 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtyONHhe5lo
钱学森 第五集 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pULEAlHOUg
钱学森 第六集 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPG8EHiy5LQ
Qian Xuesen 钱学森 - Father of China's Rocket and Space Program
Qian Xuesen (simplified Chinese: 钱学森; traditional Chinese: 錢學森; pinyin: Qián Xuésēn; Wade–Giles: Ch'ien Hsüeh-sęn) (11 December 1911 – 31 October 2009) was a scientist who made important contributions to the missile and space programs of both the United States and People's Republic of China. Historical documents in the U. S. commonly refer to him with the earlier family-name last spelling, Hsue-Shen Tsien or H.S. Tsien.
During the 1940s Qian was one of the founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology. During the Second Red Scare of the 1950s, the United States government accused Qian of having communist sympathies, and he was stripped of his security clearance in 1950. Qian then decided to return to China, but instead was detained at Terminal Island near Los Angeles. After spending 5 years under virtual house arrest, Qian was released in 1955, in exchange for the repatriation of American pilots captured during the Korean War. Notified by U.S. authorities that he was free to go, Qian immediately arranged his departure, leaving for China in September 1955, on the passenger liner SS President Cleveland of American President Lines, via Hong Kong. He returned to lead the Chinese rocket program, and became known as the "Father of Chinese Rocketry" (or "King of Rocketry").
He is also the cousin of the mechanical engineer Hsue-Chu Tsien and his son (first cousin once removed) is the 2008 Nobel Prize in chemistry winner Roger Y. Tsien. Asteroid 3763 Qianxuesen and the ill-fated space ship Tsien in the science fiction novel 2010: Odyssey Two are named after him.
Early life and education
Qian Xuesen (Wade–Giles: Ch'ien Hsüeh-sęn) was born in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province, 180 km southwest of Shanghai. He left Hangzhou at the age of three, when his father obtained a post in the Ministry of Education in Beijing. Qian graduated from Chiao Tung University (now spelled Jiao Tong) in Shanghai in 1934 and received a degree in mechanical engineering, with an emphasis on railroad administration; he then spent an internship at Nanchang Air Force Base. In August 1935 Qian left China on a Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship to study mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and earned a Master of Science degree from MIT a year later.
While at MIT he was influenced by the methods of American engineering education, and its focus on experimentation. Qian's experiments included the plotting of plot pressures, using mercury filled manometers. (By contrast, most engineers in China at this time were not the "hands on" type; instead, theoretical studies were preferred.) Qian sought a school where his mathematical skills would be appreciated, and went to the California Institute of Technology to pursue his studies under Theodore von Kármán. Qian earned his doctorate from Caltech in 1939 with a thesis on slender body theory at high speeds. He would remain on the Caltech faculty until his departure for China in 1955, becoming the Robert H. Goddard Professor of Jet Propulsion in 1949, and establishing a reputation as one of the leading rocket scientists in the United States.
It was shortly after arriving at Caltech in 1936 that Qian was attracted to the rocketry ideas of Frank Malina, other students of von Kármán, and their associates, including Jack Parsons. Around Caltech the dangerous and explosive nature of their work earned them the nickname "Suicide Squad."
Career in the United States
In 1943, Qian and two others in the Caltech rocketry group drafted the first document to use the name Jet Propulsion Laboratory; it was a proposal to the Army for developing missiles in response to Germany's V-2 rocket. This led to the Private A, which flew in 1944, and later the Corporal, the WAC Corporal, and other designs.
After World War II he served under von Kármán as a consultant to the United States Army Air Force, and commissioned with the assimilated rank of colonel. Von Kármán and Tsien both were sent by the Army to Germany to investigate the progress of wartime aerodynamics research. Qian investigated research facilities and interviewed German scientists including Wernher von Braun and Rudolph Hermann. Von Kármán wrote of Qian, “At the age of 36, he was an undisputed genius whose work was providing an enormous impetus to advances in high-speed aerodynamics and jet propulsion.” The American journal Aviation Week & Space Technology would name Qian its Person of the Year in 2007, and comment on his interrogation of von Braun, "No one then knew that the father of the future U.S. space program was being quizzed by the father of the future Chinese space program."
During this time, Colonel Qian worked on designing an intercontinental space plane. His work would inspire the X-20 Dyna-Soar, which itself would later influence the development of the American Space Shuttle.
Qian Xuesen married Jiang Ying (蒋英), a famed opera singer and the daughter of Jiang Baili (蒋百里) and his wife, Japanese nurse Satô
Yato. The elder Jiang was a military strategist and adviser to Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek. The Qians were married on September 14, 1947 in Shanghai, and would have two children; their son Qian Yonggang was born in Boston on October 13, 1948, while their daughter Qian Yungjen was born in early 1950, when the family was residing in Pasadena.
Shortly after his wedding, Qian returned to America, to take up a teaching position at MIT; Jiang Ying would join him in December 1947. In 1949, upon the recommendation of von Kármán, Qian became the first director of the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center at Caltech.
In 1949,when he was applying for naturalization, allegations were made that he was a communist, and his security clearance was revoked in June 1950. The Federal Bureau of Investigation located an American Communist Party document from 1938 with his name on it, and used it as justification for the revocation. Without clearance, Qian found himself unable to pursue his career, and within two weeks announced plans to return to mainland China, which had come under the government of Communist leader Mao Zedong. After Qian's plans became known, the U.S. government detained him at Terminal Island, an isolated U.S. Navy facility and federal prison near the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. The Undersecretary of the Navy at the time, Dan A. Kimball, tried to keep Qian in the U.S., commenting:
"It was the stupidest thing this country ever did. He was no more a Communist than I was, and we forced him to go."
Release and exile
Qian became the subject of five years of secret diplomacy and negotiation between the U.S. and China. During this time he lived under constant surveillance with the permission to teach without any research (classified) duties. Qian found himself in conflict with both the FBI and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, and at one point was arrested for allegedly smuggling secret documents out of the US; these ultimately turned out to be simple logarithmic tables. During his incarceration, Qian received support from his colleagues at Caltech, including the institute's president Lee DuBridge, who flew to Washington to argue Qian's case. Caltech appointed attorney Grant Cooper to defend Qian. Later, Cooper would say, "That the government permitted this genius, this scientific genius, to be sent to Communist China to pick his brains is one of the tragedies of this century."
Career in China
Qian, exiled to China, had a successful career there, leading and becoming the father of the Chinese missile program with the construction of China's Dongfeng ballistic missiles and the Long March space rockets. A book about this scientist's life was written by Iris Chang, entitled Thread of the Silkworm.
Return to China
In 1979 Qian was awarded Caltech's Distinguished Alumni Award. In the early 1990s the filing cabinets containing Qian's research work were offered to him by Caltech. Most of these works became the foundation for the Qian Library at Xi'an Jiaotong University while the rest went to the Institute of Mechanics. Qian eventually received his award from Caltech, and with the help of his friend Frank Marble brought it to his home in a widely-covered ceremony. Qian was also invited to visit the US by AIAA after the normalization of Sino-US relationship, but he refused the invitation, having wanted a formal apology for his detention. In a 2002 published reminiscence, Marble stated that he believed that Qian had “lost faith in the American government” but that he had “always had very warm feelings for the American people.”
Qian retired in 1991 and maintained a low public profile in Beijing, China.
The PRC government launched its manned space program in 1992 with much help from Russia (due to their extended history in space) and used Qian's research as the basis for the Long March rocket which successfully launched the Shenzhou V mission in October 2003. The elderly Qian was able to watch China's first manned space mission on television from his hospital bed.
Science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke, in his novel 2010: Odyssey Two, named a Chinese spaceship after him.
In his later years, since the 1980s, Qian advocated scientific investigation of traditional Chinese medicine, Qigong and "special human body functions". Some people claim that Qian actually did not spend his effort[clarification needed] on qigong, but that he just expressed that people should consider the widely practiced qigong in a scientific manner. He particularly encouraged scientists to accumulate observational data on qigong for the establishment of future theories.
From the early 1980s he studied in a number of areas, and created systematics, contributed on science and technology system and somatic science, thinking science, natural sciences, engineering science, literature and art, military science, systems science, geography science, social science, and education.
Advanced the concepts, theory and method on system science: open complex giant system, from qualitative to quantitative integration of Hall for Workshop of comprehensive and integrated system, and opened up a Chinese school of the Science of Complexity. Organizated scientific seminars and train successors.
In 2008, he was named Aviation Week and Space Technology Person of the Year. This selection is not intended as an honour but is given to the person judged to have the greatest impact on aviation in the past year.
In 2008, China Central Television named Qian as one of the eleven most inspiring people in China. He died at the age of 97 on October 31, 2009 in Beijing.
In July 2009, the Omega Alpha Association named Qian (H. S. Tsien) one of four Honorary Members in the international systems engineering honor society.
A Chinese film production 钱学森 预告片 （陈坤主演）
Qian Xue Sen directed by Zhang Jianya stars Zhang Tielin as Qian Xue to be release on 11 December 2011 in both Asia and North America.
Tsien HS Two-dimensional subsonic flow of compressible fluids // Aeronaut. Sci. 1939
Von Karman T, Tsien HS. The buckling of thin cylindrical shells under axial compression. J Aeronaut Sci 1941
Tsien, HS 1943 Symmetrical Joukowsky Airfoils in shear flow. Q. Appl. Math.
Tsien, HS, "On the Design of the Contraction Cone for a Wind Tunnel," J. Aeronaut. Sci., 10, 68-70, 1943
Von Karman, T. and Tsien, HS, "Lifting- line Theory for a Wing in Nonuniform Flow," Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 3, 1945
Tsien, HS: Similarity laws of hypersonic flows. J. Math. Phys. 25, 247-251, (1946).
Tsien, HS 1952 The transfer functions of rocket nozzles. J. Am. Rocket Soc
Tsien, HS, "Rockets and Other Thermal Jets Using Nuclear Energy", The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, Addison-Wesley Vol.11, 1949
Tsien, HS, “Take-Off from Satellite Orbit,” Journal of the American. Rocket Society, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1953
Tsien, HS 1956 The Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo Method, Advances in Appl. Mech.
Tsien, HS, 1958, "The equations of gas dynamics."
Tsien, HS, "Rockets and Other Thermal Jets using Nuclear Energy", The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, Addison-Wesley
Engineering Cybernetics, Tsien, H.S. McGraw Hill, 1954
Tsien, H.S. Technische Kybernetik. Übersetzt von Dr. H. Kaltenecker. Berliner Union Stuttgart 1957
Hydrodynamic manuscript facsimile, Jiaotong University Press, 2007 ISBN 978-7-313-04199-9
University of Science & Technology of China
钱学森：历尽险阻报效祖国 火箭之王淡泊名誉，人民网，2009年10月31日.Accessed Oct. 31, 2009; (Chinese)
美国航空周刊2008年度人物:钱学森．网易探索(广州)（2009年10月31日）. Accessed Nov. 11, 2009.
7. a b c http://www.galcit.caltech.edu/history/index.html
8. Chang, p109-117.
9. Noland, Claire (2009-01-11). "Qian Xuesen dies at 98; rocket scientist helped establish Jet Propulsion Laboratory". Los Angeles Times.
10. Iris Chang, Thread of the Silkworm, p. 139 (wedding), p. 141 (birth of son), p. 153 (birth of daughter)
11. Iris Chang, Thread of the Silkworm, p. 139-140
13. Naval War College China's Nuclear Force Modernization
14. Tsien Revisited
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20. Person of the Year, Aviation Week and Space Technology, Vol. 168., No. 12, March 24, 2008, p. 22
21. "China's "father of space technology" dies at 98". Xinhua. 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
22. Noland, Claire (1 November 2009), Qian Xuesen dies at 98; rocket scientist helped establish Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Los Angeles Times
Chang, Iris (1995). Thread of the Silkworm. Perseus Books Group. ISBN 978-0-465-08716-7.
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中華人民共和國在1949年10月成立後，錢學森立即向美國移民局提出了入籍歸化的申請。由于美國在1950年麦卡锡主义盛行，反共思想高涨，而FBI又从美国共产党的文件中发现钱学森曾与周恩来特使接触以及参加过共产党外围组织的一些活动。于是驳回其入籍申请，并禁止其参加机密工作。钱学森无法继续他的研究。两星期后钱学森先告知學校其去中國探親數月之意願，學校並無異議且願意配合。但是當時海軍部次長丹·金波尔知道後，认为以錢學森涉及美軍機密工作之深，在當時中美蘇關係惡劣狀況之下，應設法勸阻其訪中為宜。联邦调查局仅凭钱学森早年參加過的共产党组织社交餐会出席人士名单，指控他在入籍申请中故意否认曾加入共产党外围组织不报。司法部藉“伪证”罪吊销他的机密工作许可并将他驱逐出境。 美国司法部于于1950年8月30日將钱学森临时收押在特米诺岛（Terminal Island）的监狱里15天。由于加州理工学院的不懈努力和抗争，錢學森很快被取保候審。为了避免被驱逐出境，钱学森重金聘請紐約市知名辯護律師Grant Cooper代表出庭，与美国移民局展开了长达5年的法庭鬥爭。 金波尔知道司法部的行動後也表示震驚：“我的意思不是要逮捕他，太可怕了，他不是共产党，我们不应当监禁他。”“这是这个国家干过的最蠢的事。他不是共產黨正如我不是共产党，而我们强迫他离开了。” 錢學森的移民上訴案件直到1954年才被判敗訴。在上诉五年期间，錢學森只能涉及一些基础学科的研究与教学。聯調局认为钱学森所知的机密信息五年后就会变得过时而没有用处。他在这段时间里完成了工程控制论的研究。钱学森后来幽默地说，“不让我做研究，我会在这里（用手指头）发展”。在中美关系正常化后，钱獲頒傑出校友獎受到加州理工學院邀请，但卻因美政府遞解出境令仍然有效而無法入境。該獎項後於2001年由加州理工學院好友法蘭克·馬波教授及夫人送達錢學森家中（馬波教授於1955年錢學森離美時親自去洛杉矶港口送行）。 航空週刊在提名錢學森為2007風雲人物的專文，對這段歷史的記述也大致吻合。
1955年，在中、美政府长达几个月的日内瓦双边会谈之后，钱学森被美国政府释放，用以交换在朝鲜战争中被俘的美国飞行员。9月17日，钱学森登上了美国总统轮船公司（American President Lines）的克利夫兰总统号（Pres. Cleveland）经香港于10月8日折返中国。
1999年美国国会考克斯报告（英语：Cox Report）（Cox Report）中专门有一节题为“钱学森在中国导弹与空间计划发展中的作用”，声称钱学森为“间谍”。钱学森传记作者张纯如对这一指控予以了驳斥。
Tsien HS. Two-dimensional subsonic flow of compressible fluids // Aeronaut. Sci. 1939
Von Karman T, Tsien HS. The buckling of thin cylindrical shells under axial compression. J Aeronaut Sci 1941
Tsien, HS. Symmetrical Joukowsky Airfoils in shear flow. Q. Appl. Math.1943
Tsien, HS. On the Design of the Contraction Cone for a Wind Tunnel. J. Aeronaut. Sci., 10, 68-70, 1943
Von Karman, T. and Tsien, HS. Lifting- line Theory for a Wing in Nonuniform Flow. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 3, 1945
Tsien, HS. Similarity laws of hypersonic flows. J. Math. Phys. 25, 247-251, (1946).
Tsien, HS , and Kuo, YH , "Two-Dimensional Irrotational. Mixed Subsonic and Supersonic Flow of a Compressible Fluid and the Upper Critical Mach dumber", NACA Technical Note No. 495, 1946
Tsien, HS. Rockets and Other Thermal Jets Using Nuclear Energy", The Science and Engineering of Nuclear Power, Addison-Wesley Vol.11, 1949
Tsien, HS. The transfer functions of rocket nozzles. J. Am. Rocket Soc, 1952
Tsien, HS. Take-Off from Satellite Journal of the American. Rocket Society, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1953
Tsien, HS. The Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo Method, Advances in Appl. Mech. 1956
Tsien, HS. The equations of gas dynamics. 1958
钱学森，于景元，戴汝为. 一个科学新领域--开放的复杂巨系统及其方法论. 自然杂志. 1990 (1).
Engineering Cybernetics，Tsien, H. S. McGraw Hill, 1954
Tsien, H.S. Technische Kybernetik, Übersetzt von Dr. H. Kaltenecker, Berliner Union Stuttgart 1957
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论系统工程。湖南科学技术出版社, 1982. ISBN 9787535704122
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论人体科学与现代科技。上海交通大学出版社, 1998. ISBN 9787313016010
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钱学森书信选（上、下卷）.国防工业出版社, 2008. ISBN 9787118056457
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31. ‘Rape of Nanking’ Author Denounces Cox Report
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*（美）张纯如著，张定绮、许耀云译. 中国导弹之父——钱学森之谜. 台北市：天下文化出版公司. 1996. ISBN 957-621-355-X.
*Harvey, Brian. China's Space Program: From Conception to Manned Spaceflight. Springer-Verlag. 2004. ISBN 1852335661.
November 1, 2009
Qian Xuesen dies at 98; rocket scientist helped establish Jet Propulsion Laboratory By Claire Noland
Qian Xuesen, seen in 1948, a Chinese-born aeronautical engineer educated at Caltech and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was credited with leading China to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles, Silkworm anti-ship missiles, weather and reconnaissance satellites and to put a human in space in 2003. (Associated Press)
Deported in 1955 on suspicion of being a Communist, the aeronautical engineer educated at Caltech became known as the father of China's space and missile programs.
Qian Xuesen, a former Caltech rocket scientist who helped establish the Jet Propulsion Laboratory before being deported in 1955 on suspicion of being a Communist and who became known as the father of China's space and missile programs, has died. He was 98.
Qian, also known as Tsien Hsue-shen, died Saturday in Beijing, China's state news agency reported. The cause was not given.
Honored in his homeland for his "eminent contributions to science," Qian was credited with leading China to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles, Silkworm anti-ship missiles, weather and reconnaissance satellites and to put a human in space in 2003.
The man deemed responsible for these technological feats also was labeled a spy in the 1999 Cox Report issued by Congress after an investigation into how classified information had been obtained by the Chinese.
Qian, a Chinese-born aeronautical engineer educated at Caltech and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was a protege of Caltech's eminent professor Theodore von Karman, who recognized him as an outstanding mathematician and "undisputed genius."
Qian's research contributed to the development of "jet-assisted takeoff" technology that the military began using in the 1940s.
He was the founding director of the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center at Caltech and a member of the university's so-called Suicide Squad of rocket experimenters who laid the groundwork for testing done by JPL.
But his brilliant career in the United States came to a screeching halt in 1950, when the FBI accused him of being a member of a subversive organization. Qian packed up eight crates of belongings and set off for Shanghai, saying he and his wife and two young children wanted to visit his aging parents back home. Federal agents seized the containers, which they claimed contained classified materials, and arrested him on suspicion of subversive activity.
Qian denied any Communist leanings, rejected the accusation that he was trying to spirit away secret information and initially fought deportation. He later changed course, however, and sought to return to China.
Five years after his arrest, he was shipped off in an apparent exchange for 11 American airmen captured during the Korean War.
"I do not plan to come back," Qian told reporters. "I have no reason to come back. . . . I plan to do my best to help the Chinese people build up the nation to where they can live with dignity and happiness."
Welcomed as a national hero in China, where the Communist regime had defeated the Nationalist forces, Qian became director of China's rocket research and was named to the Central Committee of the Communist Party. China, whose scientific development lagged during the Communist revolution, quickly began making strides.
Qian was born in the eastern city of Hangzhou, and in 1934 graduated from Jiaotong University in Shanghai, where he studied mechanical engineering. He won a scholarship to MIT and, after earning a master's degree in aeronautical engineering there, continued his doctoral studies at Caltech.
He taught at MIT and Caltech and, having received a security clearance, served on the Scientific Advisory Board that advised the U.S. military during and after World War II.
Sent to Germany to interrogate Nazi scientists, Qian interviewed rocket scientist Wernher von Braun. As the trade magazine Aviation Week put it in 2007, upon naming Qian its person of the year, "No one then knew that the father of the future U.S. space program was being quizzed by the father of the future Chinese space program."
Qian returned to Caltech in 1949 and a year later faced the accusation by two former members of the Los Angeles Police Department's "Red Squad" that he was a card-carrying member of the Communist Party.
He admitted that while a graduate student in the 1930s he had been present at social gatherings organized by colleagues who also were accused of party membership, but he denied any political involvement.
Few can agree on the question of whether Qian was a spy. An examination of the papers Qian packed away failed to turn up any classified documents. Colleagues at Caltech firmly stood behind him, and he continued to do research there after he lost his security clearance. In fact, the university gave him its distinguished alumni award in 1979 in recognition of his pioneering work in rocket science.
Although federal officials started deportation procedures in 1950, he was prevented from leaving the country because it was decided that he knew too much about sensitive military matters that could be of use to an enemy.
For years, Qian was in a sort of limbo, being watched closely by the U.S. government and living under partial house arrest. Eventually he quit fighting his expulsion and actively worked to return to China. Some associates said that he was insulted because his loyalty to this country was questioned and that he initially wanted to clear his name.
Once he returned home in 1955, he threw himself into his research with what some saw as calculated revenge.
"It was the stupidest thing this country ever did," former Navy Secretary Dan Kimball later said, according to Aviation Week. "He was no more a Communist than I was, and we forced him to go."
Qian survived the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, when many Chinese intellectuals lost their positions, probably because his scientific research and development for military purposes was considered too vital to suspend.
He is said to have supported the government's crushing of the rebellion in Tiananmen Square in 1989. And he never returned to the United States.
Information on survivors was not immediately available.
January 10 2015
Yu Min, 'father of China's H-bomb', wins top science award
Highest honor for veteran nuclear physicist whose involvement in defense project was so secret that even his wife didn't know about it. Veteran nuclear physicist Yu Min - dubbed the "father of China's hydrogen bomb" - has received the country's top science award.
Yu, 89, an academic with the Chinese Academy of Sciences who has been involved in research into nuclear weapons since the 1960s, was presented with the National Highest Science and Technology Award by President Xi Jinping at a ceremony yesterday, mainland media reported. The award comes with a 5 million yuan (HK$6.3 million) cash prize.
Yu was a leading scientist in designing the country's hydrogen bomb, winning a medal for his contribution to "two bombs, one satellite" - China's self-reliant national defence programme - in 1999.
China detonated its first hydrogen bomb in 1967, a little more than two-and-a-half years after the country's first atomic bomb test - much less time than the seven years and three months the United States took to develop a hydrogen bomb after its first atomic test.
Nuclear weapon projects were highly classified in the 1960s so Yu's name remained a secret until 1988, when he officially retired. Even his wife had no idea of his involvement in the project before then, according to the Legal Evening News.
After solving one key problem in 1965, Yu reportedly used code to relay his breakthrough to Deng Jiaxian, another scientist who played an instrumental role in developing China's atomic and hydrogen weapons.
Yu reportedly phoned Deng and told him that he "hunted a squirrel" that had an "uncommon physical structure", and "needed more manpower to help with dissection", as a hint for his new findings. Deng rushed to Shanghai from Beijing after the phone call, the newspaper reported.
Yu, a Hebei native, graduated from Peking University. He did not study overseas and had few chances to interact with foreign experts, according to the website people.com.cn
A total of 24 scientists have received the award in previous years, including the father of hybrid rice Yuan Longping, and urban planner Wu Liangyong. Physical chemist Zhang Cunhao and nuclear weapons expert Cheng Kaijia shared last year's award.
Meanwhile, 318 cutting-edge scientific research projects - including network computing, methods for converting methanol to olefins, and the Tianhe-1 supercomputer - received national science awards for 2014, according to the State Council.
SCMP: January 10 2015 Li Jing firstname.lastname@example.org
China Hawaii Chamber of Commerce (HKCHcc)